Cryptocurrency is also known as virtual currency. Suffice it to say that the word “virtual” is becoming increasingly familiar in the context of cryptocurrencies, indicating a new love of virtual reality.

More and more cryptocurrency events and meetings are hosted in VR rooms or platforms. At the same time, blockchain-based virtual worlds and platforms were created using their own cryptocurrencies, allowing virtual citizens to acquire in-house items.

But is such an important part of such growth? Or is this just a segment of the cryptocurrency ecosystem that could collapse as soon as Korovirus disappears and once again be able to attend IRL (real-life) conferences?
Usually, in the case of these items, the answer can be found somewhere in the middle.
Virtual meetings, lectures and conferences
Now that Coronavirus has effectively shut down all cryptocurrency conferences, virtual reality has taken a step forward in the near future, without attending meetings, with no chance of catching a sympathetic infection from a fellow.
Since February at least, VR has hosted Bitcoin (BTC) and other crypto meetings. It first appeared on VRChat on February 15, when developer Udi Wertheimer organized a virtual social gathering that was also attended by other prominent bitcoiners, such as Eric Wall, Brad Mills, Hodlowout and Manny Rosenfeld, chairman of the Israeli Bitcoin Association.

This initial meeting was largely social in nature, but since then the virtual bitcoin gatherings have focused on education and business. James Lopez, Casa’s CTO, Casa Security Chief Officer, delivers the first BTC lecture as it happened on February 29, when Bitcoin developer Adam Gibson gave a presentation on PayJoin, a special type of CoinJoin protocol (a method to increase transaction). By combining bitcoin payments into one transaction).


Accessible travel and do your homework

A recent vacation has taught me some valuable lessons about accessible travel and I’d like to share it with you. My temporary admiration, which only lasted a few months, gave me valuable firsthand experiences that will benefit our readers.
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My decades-long career as a disability insurance advisor has given me a unique perspective of actively engaging with employees of client companies that make long-term disability claims (LTD). We mainly “advise” disabled employees who were submitting LTD claims and who did not understand the claims process.
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“Wall collision” … When a problem occurs, there is a “shock” that we “cross the line” in one moment. One minute we are healthy, and we are later disabled. It happens while it takes you to read this paragraph.
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The most obvious effect on their “self” began with a psychological effect that was no longer in excellent health without any restrictions. When added to the immediate negative effect of their medical condition, it was likened to “wall walking.” In addition to the physical and emotional trauma of your disability, the additional impact of immediate lifestyle changes may be overwhelming for the most difficult of souls.
How do we get to the bedroom on the second floor in a wheelchair? How will you enter the bathroom? Where do we buy a railroad to take over the bathroom? Who will install it? For elderly people with joints hands, where to find clothes or shoes with velcro containers. They are very welcome benefits for the elderly with articular fingers.

At the worst time imaginable, decisions about adapting to a completely new and completely different lifestyle must be made.

Since I was a month away from the rotator cuff surgery, I couldn’t use one arm naturally. We took public transportation from Paris’s de Gaulle airport which led us to the “tube” (London’s express transportation system). When we got to our position in the basement of the hotel, we discovered that there was no “elevator” (elevator to street level). After pulling two heavy bags with one arm, over steep stairs, I was grateful for my “good” arm.

Upon returning to the United States, I went online and conducted my first accessible travel research. My first assignment was to prepare a map of the London express transport system and a new world of opportunity appeared on my computer screen. There was a map of the entire London express system where I could see all the transportation stations that had “elevators” (elevators).

Then I looked for hotels and breakfasts that were close to stations with elevators. If I am disabled for the next time, I will simply plan an accessible travel to enjoy a trip to London.

The main message here is “Do your homework” before embarking on your vacation trips. I believe that future vacations will bring you more fun and then you can imagine.

The next part of the accessible travel trip was an invitation to speak to Parkinson’s Support Group. Since I created a brochure on accessible travel opportunities, I discovered a young Manchurian and Biologist online. I asked if I was willing to talk about travel available for a group of 40 to 50 people consisting of Parkinson’s patients and their carers.

What I learned next is perhaps the most valuable lesson I can give to anyone with any form of disability or disability who used to travel but stopped completely. Epiphany happened when he simply asked me if members of the support group had any difficulties with their trips. What I heard next was “YES”, it seems that every person in the group basically has completely stopped traveling!

Since my working life includes helping people file a disability suit, I have discovered that there are many differences in the severity of Parkinson’s disease. I learned that there were people with symptoms that initially lead to a specific diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease even those who have severe disabilities and are quite handicapped. It appears that with the initial diagnosis, this was a major factor in stopping their travel. It may have been assumed that continuing to travel would be too much to deal with.

When asked what happened, there was no way to know whether a conscious decision was made or not. She wondered if the fear of the unknown, or perhaps “traveling” would be too much. Was there a fear of getting away from their doctors or treatment facilities? Or is she just afraid of the unknown?

Another option I thought about involved many of us was feeling more comfortable with familiar surroundings. We have all heard the phrase “habit creatures”. For most people, we know that “home is the place of the heart.” More than being honest, our homes are where we are most comfortable. Familiar surroundings brings us comfortable feeling.

Don’t we have all of our favorite restaurants? I know for me that there are at least three different paths I can take to my office, all at the same distance but I still have to make a conscious effort to change my way.

Returning to Parkinson’s support group experience, each member came with a husband, parent, or friend who was the caregiver. I asked the audience to show my hands to those who had Parkinson’s. Then I asked if it was disturbing that holiday trips had stopped. There was universal recognition.

I fully understand that it can be the most annoying thing that you watched a family member facing an acute health problem. There is no way that healthcare providers can fully appreciate the impact of declining health. The most important point I want to make is that you are the person who has become more vulnerable due to a medical condition at risk, please note the effect on your partner who is no longer joining you on vacations and acknowledging your awareness of their care and changes in lifestyle.

Copyright 2016

Alan Chikway, RHU


Find the best hospitals in Bogota, Colombia

Bogota is the capital and most populous city of Colombia, and is a major country in Latin America. As the 30 largest cities in the world, Bogotá features many green parks, famous landmarks and parks. The city is a major tourist destination and is one of the major industrial centers in Latin America. There are many good hospitals and eminent doctors in Bogota. Some of the leading hospitals offer healthcare in line with international standards. These centers have a much larger nurse-to-patient ratio than most and offer warm accommodations in a friendly environment.
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San Ignacio University Hospital (HUSI) Bogota Hotel is located in Carrera 7 No. 40-62, a major healthcare facility that enjoys wide recognition from the country. The Ministry of Social Protection and the National University recently announced that this hospital is among the three best hospitals in Colombia.
This 304-storey, four-storey hospital has 22 pediatric wards, ten operating rooms, and two delivery rooms. HUSI offers the best medical and surgical service for a variety of subspecialties and specialties. The departments of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasound and Plastic are fully equipped. The hospital contains advanced CT and MRI scans. The emergency department and intensive care units are suitably equipped for intensive care patients, children and infants.
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World-renowned Center for Oncology Treatment and Research: The Javeriana Center for Oncology is part of the San Ignacio University Hospital. HUSI is the country’s leading educational school and over 80% of physicians staff are bilingual. It has a special section for international patients with an English speaking team and provides comfortable accommodation in 17 suite rooms. Contact: +57 316-466-0399
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Fundacion Hospital Santa Fe de Bogota It is located in Cali 119 No. 7 – 75. Bogotá is an important hospital with state-of-the-art facilities. This service-oriented hospital was created in 1983 by the famous non-profit healthcare institution, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. It is a private university hospital with 13 departments, 6 advisory committees and two institutes.
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The hospital employs 1500 employees and provides health care to about 150,000 customers every year. The hospital employs distinguished doctors and has full departments in all branches of medicine. The Department of Surgery includes units in cardiovascular surgery, liver surgery, and neurosurgery.
All operating rooms have facilities for laparoscopy, microscopic surgery, laser surgery, argon coagulation, self-blood transfusion, extracorporeal circulation and laminar flow systems. This hospital has the lowest rates of infection at the surgical site in Colombia. The hospital has all the latest technology devices including the Philips IE 33 scanner to view 2D and 3D images, 3D gamma SPECT-CT for advanced testing, Clinac iX with standard radiotherapy for cancer treatment, PET / CT and a holmium laser for treatments Minimal invasive. The hospital has modern intensive care units, an emergency department and several laboratories. Phone: (571) 6030303
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Clinica El Bosque Located in Calle 134 No. 12 – 55; Northern Bogota is another popular hospital in the city. A group of eminent doctors established this hospital in 1977. The hospital currently offers a full and cost-effective medical service in all major medical specialties. The renowned Department of Surgery includes eight operating theaters and units specializing in general surgery, cardiac surgery, plastic surgery, neurosurgery and microscopic surgery. Clínica El Bosque has a pharmacy and laboratories all certified by international agencies. The intensive care unit includes 14 beds, and the emergency department as a whole is equipped with modern equipment to provide excellent services to specialized doctors and nurses. The hospital created a non-profit educational institution called Forest Columbia School of Medicine. Phone: 1-2740577


Outsourcing views – a checklist to make the most of your provider's site visits

In the wake of the Satyam scandal and recent attacks in Mumbai, India, companies are closely looking to prepare well for any visits to the provider’s site. They want to make sure that they are using their time and money as efficiently and effectively as possible.
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If not organized properly, a visit to the provider’s site can be just a “visit” rather than a well-planned and implemented data collection task. Your visiting team should strive to make it a form of pre-selection for pre-care and signing the contract. To make the trip more rewarding, there are several questions your team needs to answer in advance before booking flights and setting up logistics services with service providers to make site visits more efficient. Here is a checklist to start with:

  • Investing: Set your budget The first arrangement of business is to determine the amount that you wish to invest for the provider’s site visits. This will determine the place you will be visiting (locally or at a distance) and the number of people your company (and consulting firm) will attend. For example, U.S.-based companies can average an average of $ 8,000 for business class travel per person to India. In addition, other expenses include accommodation, local road transport, food, advice, passport, work visa, and medical preparation.
    Hint: Always overestimate your expenses because you may need to adjust your schedule and extend your flight.
  • Team involvement: choose to visit the participants The chief executive officer of the project must determine who needs to participate. Representatives should include executives from outsourced positions (for example, Deputy Head of Infrastructure), career topic experts (for example, senior manager of the help desk) and business executives who will receive services that are outsourced (E.g., vice president of business operations). Keep in mind that the more you attend, the more employees will be out of the office for a long period of time (a minimum of one week depending on the number of service providers visited and the location of the site).
    Hint: Often times, employees who have been affected by the decision to outsource travel may be reluctant, especially abroad because they may see this as a major commitment and a last step towards a change in the way they work. The CEO needs to encourage those to participate so that they can come to ask the right questions and see what the service providers can offer.
  • Purpose: to define the objectives of the visit – Your team needs to determine the purpose of these visits. The site visit team must establish at least three primary goals. This will push your entire agenda forward.
    Hint: You don’t have a small selection group that determines the goals of the visit. Broaden your post so everyone has the result. Otherwise, for the rest of the team, it is “their visit”, not “our visit.”
  • Timeframe: Schedule the visit – Once you have completed the goals of your visit, specify when you will visit the site based on how your bidding process is organized. In some cases, customers want to visit all the service providers who respond to the RFP. In other cases, the client wants to visit only those who are two or three finalists.
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    Hint: Make sure you understand if there are any national or religious holidays that may affect your trip. Do not assume that your service providers will accommodate you at any time.
  • Locations: Specify locations to visit Each provider has at least one display site that he wants you to visit. To use your time effectively, your resource advisor must contact each applicant candidate and request a list of provider-specific Centers of Excellence (COE) for the specific industry and work that your company seeks to outsource. Once armed with this information, it’s easy to decide which sites to visit as primary and secondary candidates. The provider’s goal is to get as much time as possible in front of their clients. The theory is that the more time they have, the less time available to other providers. As mentioned earlier, these visits are costly, so you want to increase your revenue by visiting the appropriate site (s).

    Hint: To keep your costs in line, you may need to compromise and visit a non-COE provider site. These are some of the trade-offs that you will need to make to keep your expenses in line as you go through the selection process.

  • Planning, agenda and logistics: sooner rather than later – Planning as far as possible will reduce your costs (better prices on flights) and allow you time to obtain your travel documents (for example, service provider invitation letters, passports and work visas) and health requirements (such as snapshots and prescriptions), coverage Medical insurance) in order. Check with your company’s travel office early in the process to obtain the correct documentation required for the country (s) you are visiting. Coordinating business visas can be a waste of time. On-site logistics are essential for managing time effectively and achieving your visit goals. Your team must define a “visit agenda” based on the goals of your visit. This will include a daily logistical plan and specific questions for each provider.

    Hint: Check your company’s medical insurance coverage abroad. Ask if your policy applies abroad and if it covers emergency expenses such as medical evacuation. If not, consider supplemental insurance.

  • Evaluation: assessing the capacity of caregivers and culture – After each interactive session, service providers should be evaluated across three basic parameters:
    Persons – Is there a match between the cultures of our company? Can we work with this team?
    Processing Will they benefit from standard processes in industry effectively for our project? Will we have to change our methods to adapt to the provider’s process?
    Technique What technology does the project provide to the project, which will give us a competitive advantage in the market?

    Create evaluation criteria and ensure that they define the goals of your visit and every item on your agenda. This step cannot be underestimated.

    Hint: Each provider must be objectively registered after each visit and discussed in a daily debriefing session. It is best to capture this information while it is still fresh in the minds of the visitors.

  • Travel guarantees: Register with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in your country – It is recommended that you register with your Ministry of Foreign Affairs so that they can assist you better in emergency situations. This will help them contact you if there is a family emergency in the United States, or if there is a crisis you are traveling to. According to the Privacy Act, information about your well-being and whereabouts will not be released to others without your explicit permission.

    Hint: Leave copies of the itinerary, passport and visa page with family or friends so that they can contact you in the event of an emergency at home. Site visits are provided by only one component in the overall decision-making process. Whether you are a long or short traveler to visit a provider’s website, there are significant costs for time and money. The old saying, “What you put in something is directly related to what you get from it” is certainly true with provider site visits. When you make it right, the investment you make now will give you a good return on investment in the years to come.


Student residence – where you live in the university

Your place of residence has a major impact on the quality of the student experience. Often the friends you make in the first year are the friends you keep, and where you live plays a big role in meeting them. Expensive housing It is difficult to overestimate the impact of your housing on the total student budget.

Most universities host you for the first year – although some have very few accommodations, while very few (for example, Oxford and Cambridge) have almost all students for a full course. There may be university halls (on or off campus), or local homes owned or managed by the university or other properties, or that some universities housing students for a private company, or use local private halls or private housing – Or a combination of all of these.

University housing

Go to live in university housing if you can. The standards and rents vary, but it is easier to make friends, you have more influence with the owner and may be closer to the Students ’Union and areas of teaching.

What is available?

Usually you have a choice of rooms in different rooms with different rents. The traditional halls depend on corridors. Modern halls are usually grouped in apartments and some rooms may have en-suite bathrooms (although the rent will be higher than the common room in a 1960s building). Most of the university accommodations are self-catering, but dining halls are an option at some universities.

Check the university files at the university Find a summary of what each university and the university website provides for a detailed description of each residence hall. Go and see the accommodation you are applying to, if possible. Find out what is provided before your arrival and what you need to bring, for example, your bedding.

How much will it cost?

From around 55 pounds per week for a basic thing in a cheap area, to 120 pounds per week for an en-suite room with wide connectivity in new halls and a high price somewhere. University profiles (see University Research) tell you about the cost (approximately) at each university, and most importantly, how many weeks does your contract take.

You may have a fixed-term contract (you may have to go out during the Christmas and Easter holidays), which is good if you have a home to go on holidays. Other contracts are 36 to 40 weeks of school year (best if you want to have a base for most of the year and plan to travel in the summer). Some for 52 whole weeks – a must for those who have a family or do not have another home but there is a lot of money wasted for others.

How can you apply for student housing?

It usually involves filling out another form – increasingly online. You may be asked to write a short personal statement or answer questions (for example, about your interests or whether you smoke) so that the housing office can try to bring together compatible students. Make sure you get your order long before the deadline – some accommodations are allocated on a first-come, first-served basis.

Private residence

In some cities with a lot of students, there are commercial student halls run by private companies, for example, Unite. They are usually central and specially designed for this purpose, and you can share them with students from a number of other universities in the city.

Rent a student house / apartment

When you need to rent from the private sector, the university residency service will definitely help, and if you are lucky, you may also check the residence on its listings. Sometimes colleges that do not have housing in the first year organize "housing days", where new students come and meet with each other and local real estate agents to sort shares. There is a lot of information on local rates in our university files; see also some national websites covering the studentpad. (accommodationforstudents); and for London, try out the joint universities website, studenthousing.lon.

It is difficult to find cheap rented housing in the lush suburbs or holiday areas (where the semester begins before vacationers return home). Self-catering accommodations are usually cheaper, as long as you know how to feed yourself cheaply. Remember to add travel costs when assessing rents (there is no point in dirt cheap if it costs the wealth of getting lectures).

There is a lot to think about when looking at housing (and you should look). Here are a few

Pointers to start you.

– Security – Is he in an area where you can get burglar insurance; is he on a bus / tube route; and will you feel safe walking home from your nearest station?

– Electricity / gas / water safety – Sockets, pipes, wires and devices – Do they appear to be safe and serviced regularly? Gas and fire water heaters special look; realtors now have to maintain gas appliances annually and provide you with proof of this. (If you are interested in a gas-powered device, the Health and Safety Department operates a line for advice on carbon monoxide, 0800 300 363 or via the website)

– Fire safety – smoke alarms, exits, windows and doors.

– Moist – Any sign of that? Breathing.

Pests and insects – signs, smell, etc.

– TV license – Was it paid? If not, then it is legal for you.

Get yourself arranged before the start of the semester if you can; you will be in a long-term disadvantage if you start the course while you are still sleeping on the floors of friends.

Live at home

If it is close enough, it is almost certainly cheaper to live at home. But you may miss some social facilities and be less involved in student life. You should exit if you do not have adequate study facilities – your own room as a start.


Some mortgage companies have special packages for students who can buy an apartment, house, or sub-rooms. You may need a parent to act as a guarantor. Instead, some parents find that buying a house or apartment is the most cost-effective way to make parental contributions.

Squatting and other options

If all else fails, renting a caravan can be an option in some rural areas. Or, you might be able to join random students (except in Scotland); while it's still legal, law needs to be watched. You can obtain a copy of the Squatters brochure and advice from the Squatters Advisory Service (or squatter org). You can also visit the Squatters advisory center located in Whitechapel, London. They will be able to give you good advice and help you find other people sitting cross-legged as well.


Top 5 Nexus Sales Tax Issues for Technology Firms

Technology companies sales tax checklist

  1. Do you make Internet sales? (In all Internet sales, sales tax is due … assuming that the product / service is taxable. The issue is whether the seller is obligated to collect and transfer or whether the buyer must report himself.)
  2. Do you have affiliated (to generate sales) relationships with companies outside the country?
  3. Do you have sales representatives traveling outside your country?
  4. Do you participate in trade fairs outside your country?
  5. Do you have employees or agents who perform services on your behalf outside your local jurisdiction?

If you have answered "yes" to one or more of these questions, you can create a sales tax obligation outside your original state. Also remember that the income tax association is not equal to the sales tax association. The rules apply differently.


Nexus is "contact" or "link". The term "sales and use tax" refers to the relationship between a person or entity and a tax jurisdiction that is sufficient for that jurisdiction to require a person or entity to comply with its laws relating to the sale and use of taxes.

The current basis for determining when the relationship between sales and the use of taxes is found in two Supreme Court cases: Quill Corp. vs. North Dakota (26 May 1992), National Bellas Hess, Inc. vs. Department of the Avenue of State of Illinois (8 May 1967). In Quill Corp and National Bellas Hess, Inc. , The Supreme Court ruled in favor of taxpayers, limiting the states ’ability to impose their tax authority on interstate commerce. The guidance from these two situations can be used in today's markets to manage sales and use tax liability responsibilities.

While most countries continue to refer to these cases when determining the boundaries of the relationship between sales tax, countries continue to pursue expanded sales and use of the tax authority. Since Nexus is the primary component that requires a company to collect and transfer sales tax, it is important to point out some difficulties in determining whether or not the company has a sales tax relationship.

As with most issues related to sales tax and its use, determining whether or not there is a relationship between sales tax requires some level of interpretation of the state’s statute as it applies to the entity’s activities. With this background, here are the most common problems that technology companies face in terms of the relationship between sales tax. Also, it should be noted that sellers do not actually "charge" sales tax. Instead, the seller "collects and converts" the sales tax. This can be important. For example, as with Internet sales, sales tax is always “due”. This problem becomes whether the seller is obligated to collect and transfer the tax or if the buyer is obligated to provide a self-report.

# 1. Join Nexus, "Amazon Laws", and Nexus Click-Through

The internet has resulted in a shift in our purchasing patterns and lower sales tax revenue. With our current tax system and nexus rules as described above, a retailer outside the country (translation – retailer without a relationship in the state) sells goods to a consumer or an online business that is not required to collect sales tax. The buyer has the responsibility to self-assess the tax and to transfer the use tax voluntarily to the state. Most companies realize these nuances, but many consumers are not.

States ensure compliance with these laws through business reviews; however, states do not have the bandwidth, nor are they practical, the audits of each consumer. So, instead of going after the consumer, countries look to apply tax rules that require businessmen outside the country to collect the tax.

This is why "nexus affiliate", "amazon law" or "click nexus" have evolved. These are the ways in which countries have attempted to use existing relevance criteria to require retailers outside the country to collect the tax that has not been collected. A typical scenario occurs when a business outside the country forms a relationship with a company within the state (often referred to as a subsidiary) with the sole purpose of referring customers via a connection to the company's website. For this referral, businessmen within the state receive some kind of commission or other consideration. The relationship established through its affiliate programs creates a business association outside the country, which creates an obligation to collect and transfer local sales tax. Multiple states including Illinois and California have introduced modern link legislation that mainly targets large Internet retailers such as Amazon, hence the title "Amazon Law". In response to this legislation, Amazon has dropped its affiliate programs in most of these states. By dropping its affiliate programs, the company intends to end its association with the state and avoid responsibility for collecting potential sales tax. However, this can be a problem as most countries consider a link for a minimum of twelve months after the activity that created the relationship.

New York State has passed legislation called a "commission agreement", which creates a credible assumption that the person (the seller) who sells tangible personal property or services seeks business through an independent contractor or other representative if the seller makes an agreement with a New Yorker who resides Resident, in exchange for commission or other consideration, potential customers directly or indirectly, whether via a link on a website or otherwise, to the seller (click the link). The assumption applies if the total cumulative receipts from sales by the seller to customers in the state who have been referred to the seller by all residents with this type of agreement with the seller are more than $ 10,000 during the previous four quarterly periods ended at the end of February, May, August, and November. This presumption can be refuted by proving that the resident with whom the seller entered into did not participate in any application in New York on behalf of the seller that meets the requirements for binding to the US constitution during the preceding four quarterly periods. Tax Law No. 1101 (b) (8) (6).

Technology companies should review their affiliate programs and understand which countries, specifically, have "Amazon Amazon", "nexus" or "Click-Through Nexus" rules. This is an area that is constantly changing and requires close monitoring. At the time of publication, California passed a one-year "Amazon Law" repeal.

Travel Sales Representatives

The idea of ​​a sales representative in a home office in a state other than where the company is located is a clear example of an activity that establishes the sales tax relationship in the state in which the sales representative is located. However, what happens when a salesperson travels to other states to meet prospects or clients? This type of activity occurs frequently with technology companies where the salesperson meets the possibility of showing their products. Whether or not this type of activity is created, the sales tax relationship will depend on the situation and the frequency of the activity. The rules for each state are slightly different in terms of the extent to which to create a bond. However, for some states, the sales representative who travels to the state for one day will create the Sales Tax Association. While other countries have more lenient thresholds, there is a general rule that three days of activity of this type will create a sales association and use tax purposes.

Texas states that sellers outside the state who participate in the sale, rental, or rental of taxable goods for storage, use, or any other consumption in Texas must collect the use tax from the buyer. A "retailer doing business in this state", as well as other activities, may include any retailer: the presence of any representative, agent, vendor, sales officer or attorney operating in Texas under the authority of the retailer or its affiliate company for sale or delivery, Seizure orders for any taxable items. Texas Tax Code Ann. 151,107 (a) (2); Texas Tax Publications 94-108, Engaged in Business (Sales and Use Tax), 11/01/2006.

Nexus Strategy: Instead of face-to-face client presentations, technology companies may consider making product demos online via Webex, GoToMeeting, or any other similar application.

Trade Shows

Technology companies frequently participate in trade fairs. Usually, companies attend trade fairs to promote their products and services. The company may promote its products and services through employees or agents represented and / or display its merchandise via a kiosk or kiosk. In either of these scenarios, the company implements some kind of solicitation.

It is the solicitation activity that determines whether or not an association has been established. However, a number of countries have set specific thresholds (number of days in attendance at a trade fair) in order to determine the time for a company to attend a trade fair in the state. For example, California has set a standard for more than fifteen (15) days – meaning if you attend trade shows in California for fifteen days or less, you will not create a link in California (assuming this is your only activity within a state). Cal. Priest and taxes. CD. 6203 (d); cal. Regus Code. 18 1684 (b).

Nexus is not created with Michigan if the only contacts a person contacts with Michigan consist of: (1) attending a trade show where no merchandise requests are taken and sales are not made or (2) participating in a trade fair where there is no Goods orders and sales are not made for less than 10 days cumulatively on an annual basis. However, this rule does not apply if the person also performs the following activities: soliciting sales; performing repairs or providing maintenance or service for property sold or intended to be sold; collecting current or overdue accounts, through assignment or otherwise, related to sales of property or personal services Tangible; delivery of property sold to clients; confirmation or supervision of confirmation on or after shipment or delivery; training for employees, agents, representatives, independent contractors, brokers or others who act on behalf of the seller outside the country or for potential customers or clients; provide any Technical assistance or service to clients including, but not limited to, engineering assistance, design service, quality control or inspection of products or similar services; investigation, dealing or otherwise assisting in resolving customer complaints; providing advisory services; or soliciting or negotiating Or entering into concession or licensing agreements or similar agreements. Michigan Revenue Administrative Bulletin 1999-1, 05/12/1999.

Technology companies should carefully plan where to exhibit and understand the sales tax thresholds associated with each state for this type of activity.

# 4. Employees or agents perform services

Technology companies that send employees to a country to provide implementation, installation, or repair services create a sales association and use tax purposes. The fact that this activity is unsold or unsolicited does not mean that this activity does not create the sales tax association. On the contrary, these activities are more likely to establish a sales association and the use of tax purposes.

The Washington State Supreme Court confirmed, in a recent ruling, that the manufacturer whose employees traveled to the state with the sole purpose of simply meeting clients to manage the relationship was sufficient to establish a bond. This activity was considered as a mechanism that created a market in the country and as a result created a factory association. R W R MANAGEMENT, INC. , Appealed, Against Washington State, Revenue Service, Defendant, 10-332, 06/27/2011.

Non-employee use of customer support can have a similar effect. For example, a technology device company that uses a local supplier to repair or perform other maintenance to its customers provides service through a subsidiary and is considered to have established a sales association and used it for tax purposes. Whether the person providing the service to the customer is an employee at work or not, it is not important to the United States. The fact that a person is present in his jurisdiction and performing a service on behalf of business outside the country is sufficient to establish an association of businessmen outside the country.

Technology companies should evaluate non-sales activities that they perform in each state including installation, maintenance / support services in addition to services provided by a third party representative when evaluating their sales and the use of foot-related tax.

The relationship between income tax is not equal to the relationship between sales tax

It is often assumed that if an income tax exists on a company, it also has a sales tax relationship. end of story. This is true, but only partially true. The second half is that the company can have a sales tax relationship without an income tax relationship. The sales tax threshold is much lower than the income tax. For example, soliciting sales is generally an activity to create sales tax, while this same activity will not, by itself, create an income tax association (see P. L. 86-272). The most well-intentioned CPA firms tend to assume that since nexus is not created for income tax purposes, sales and use of nexus tax do not exist. This is certainly not intended but is the result of limited knowledge of sales and use of tax laws.

In Pennsylvania, sellers / sellers outside of the state who maintain a workplace in Pennsylvania and sell or rent concrete personal property or taxable services must register and collect sales tax and use Pennsylvania. Ba. Stat. that. 72 7202; Pa.Stat. that. 72 7237 (b); Pa. Code 61 56.1 (a) “Preserving the Workplace” in the State of Pennsylvania, in addition to other activities: regularly or substantially seeking orders within the State of Pennsylvania through an attorney, vendor, agent or representative regardless of whether applications are accepted in Pennsylvania. Ba. Stat. that. 72 7201 (b); Pascal Code 61 56.1 (b).

Technology companies should be aware of the specific expertise CPA firms have in providing sales tax advice. Sales tax is a unique system with different rules from state to state.


Creating a sales tax relationship is often the culmination of multiple link creation activities. For example, a technology company might spend three days in a country, ordering, two days at a trade fair, and a day or two in implementing its products. Each of these activities can create a sales tax association on its own but must also be shown in relation to other association creation activities.

An important note is that once the sales tax association has been established, the need to collect and transfer sales tax is triggered (assuming that what you sell is subject to tax in a particular case). The sales tax link is linked to the legal entity and extends across all sales channels. For example, if you have a direct sales channel and an online sales channel, once a link is created in a state, both channels are subject to sales tax laws and use of that status.


Medicines Quality Management System

The pharmaceutical industry is one of the highly regulated manufacturing companies. Quality management systems have a direct impact on the final quality of the final products. However, the quality of these products is not only reflected by the legislative requirements but the essence and effectiveness of the pharmacist.

Because of the importance attached to the pharmaceutical industry, just like the food industry, it is used directly by consumers both for domestic application and for internal consumption. The quality, safety and efficacy of these pharmaceutical products must be guaranteed, for this reason, so that the health of the consumer is not endangered. To ensure high quality and guaranteed safety, there is a need for high-quality pharmaceutical industries.

The pharmaceutical industry is committed to complying with international quality standards for life sciences while engaging in the production, supply or consumption of pharmaceutical products. There are internationally recognized bodies that regulate the quality of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical products.

Having a good understanding as well as applying an appropriate quality management system is a prerequisite for every type of agent in this pharmaceutical sector to fulfill the organizational and ethical responsibility of integrating identity management, safety, purity, quality and efficacy into final medical products.

For most biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, managing training, business operations, and documents is their nightmares. In this article, we will explore quality management systems and how one should explore them and manage operations successfully.


The component of a quality manufacturing system in pharmaceutical products can be applied in drug development for:

• Development of formulation (container / closure system)

• Manufacture of inquiry products.

• Development of pharmaceuticals

• Development of the analytical method

Development of the delivery system (when required)

• The manufacturing process is expanding and developing

Beneficiaries of the drug quality systems

Authors of the research and development document: In addition, effective quality management systems easily release authors' documents from compatible templates. The authors do not need to worry about rephrasing documents to match the templates. Word 2007 users can create, review, and even return documents to documents without leaving Word while using the new systems toolbar. Research and development managers (clinical, organizational and pre-clinical): They can use different types of pharmaceutical software systems for quality management such as master control, research, organization, and inventory of various study documents within a secure and central quality management system. Thanks to the automatic guidance and approval function of quality systems, managers can easily supervise project teams made up of resources from different departments, as much as teams may work on different projects at the same time. Advanced drug quality management systems also enhance correspondence from various regulators, suppliers and CROs associated with appropriate documents. With effective quality management systems, PDFs that contain content bookmarks can be created automatically for either document control functions or organizational submissions. Since most pharmaceutical quality management software is complete and connected systems, authors do not need to switch between different different systems (from word to email and then to document management system, etc.) to locate or review a document, then send it for review or approval – Quality management systems such as master control allow such actions to be performed in one integrated system.

Administration: On the part of life sciences organizations, pharmaceutical quality systems are known to provide comprehensive solutions that ignore the capabilities of the company. In the event that the institution needs training in system functionality or needs assistance in preparing the system to suit specific needs, drug quality management systems can be designed with any required level of service or support that the organization needs. An organization that needs specialized knowledge can have a skilled quality management advisory team to analyze conditions in order to draw and develop clear maps of these requirements.

Manufacturing processes: These systems easily track all specifications, incompatibilities and deviations throughout the development cycle. Medication management systems provide that all appropriate personnel are trained in the latest work instructions and standard operating procedures. Likewise, these systems automate training tasks and facilitate the location of training records within the central system.

Clinical staff: Within clinical circles, pharmaceutical quality management systems exclude management from paper file accumulations that lead to "black holes" in documents that are almost impossible to find. Now that quality management systems are electronic and automated, searching the archive for experimental documents (IRB information or protocols) is simple. Resumes, electronic copies of documents, e-mail, and other different study sites are easily accessible in one centralized system.


SBI Online Banking: An Effortless Banking Experience

SBI Internet Banking provides a safe and easy-to-use platform for your banking transactions. State Bank of India is a well-known name in India where most people prefer to be clients of the SBI. The SBI has more than 11,000 branches and six other banks across India. It provides a wide range of products and services. is a website of the SBI that provides online access to bank accounts for individual and corporate clients. To obtain access to online banking services, you must download the online banking registration form and send it to the bank after filling in the details. Once you provide all the details, the bank will provide you with a unique username and password to log into your account. It is a good practice to change your username and password once you log in with the details.

The default SBI keyboard is a safer option than using the keyboard whenever you pay online from any computer other than your PC. Incorrect login should also be avoided. Logins and customer activities are tracked and saved. Also IRCTC allows you to make your payments via SBI online banking.

Various online banking services: –

  • Transferring funds to special accounts and external accounts
  • E-tickets
  • Opening of bank accounts
  • PPF transactions
  • Request a draft case
  • Use eTax to pay taxes online
  • Make paying bills online.
  • Check book request
  • Set up profile settings
  • Rail and flight reservations
  • e-VFS – Online seller financing plan

The SBI also introduced the Loyalty Rewards program, where customers can earn Reward Points for online transactions from Rs. 100 or higher via onlinesbi. These points can be redeemed online for a refund. If you are a customer with a lot of banking transactions, online banking is an excellent choice for you. If you have any assistance with your online bank account, you can call our free customer service at 1800-112211


Is your doctor does the house call outside the country?

Doctors accompany their clients to luxury vacation homes and recreation centers. Standards and accreditation is an international effort.

The rich and famous have been making separate trips abroad for years to participate in surgical operations through rehabilitation, rehabilitation and other medical endeavors. Now, the average American can enjoy an international medical haven, and eat the whole family for less than $ 40,000 of the price of a single knee surgery in America.

The United States was ranked 37th by the World Health Organization in the healthcare field and a million people traveled outside the United States to obtain related medical services in 2008. The medical downturn in the tropical "Lux" resort appears to be better and better for more people.

Need operation – do travel

Medical tourism, so fashioned in recent times, has been around since the Romans traveled to heal in mystical places. Modern, the best services to travel to are;

Plastic and reconstructive surgery

o General plastic and dentistry

O Barretric medicine

Addiction treatments

General surgeries

O Health and Wellness

If you are already one in a million travelers, or are considering adding these numbers, you want to know what all this means.

Doctors all over the world join their clients on airplanes, in foreign hospital rooms and in hospital treatment centers in luxury 5-star spa-like hotels. Their alliance with international countries, they are allowed profitability and strange surrounding areas. Some may be attracted to the relaxed laws for more experimental measures such as stem cell research innovations that have not yet been approved in the United States.

Today's providers such as Johns Hopkins, the Mayo Clinic, and Harvard (to name a few) boast of offshore facilities. According to BusinessWeek, Blue Cross & Blue Shield in South Carolina also signed strategic alliances with seven outpatient hospitals in 2008.

Your doctor may already be booking appointments in Guatemala, Thailand, Costa Rica or the Philippines. just ask. Thailand, for example, reported 1.5 million people for medical tourism in 2007. Doctors from all over the world are registered to practice there. The term is global as well as responsibility.

Medical Marketing

My last trip to Costa Rica on medical tourism included meetings with doctors, spas, and government officials and encouraging an invitation to work for accreditation at related medical resorts and health centers. Costa Rica hosted the first medical tourism conference last year, and it is rapidly adapting to become a leader in the industry.

Cheerful ads, incentives, and "accompanying packages" for medical tourism bring a lot of attention to foreign medical institutions and their spa and entertainment counterparts. Medical tourism can bring, economic growth, prestige, international alliances, and goodwill. It also brings with him the big question about medical standards and the accreditation of a medical spa. How will the immigration of foreign patients be cared for? This growth raises some stark contrasts with the high costs of attracting medical tourists with sparkling centers, and improvements at airports compared to low public health care for its people. For the sake of this article, let's stick to the first question. Standards.

Patient trust and loyalty

The national advocacy supported by the government interested in accreditation is a great foundation and was the subject of my meeting with Massimo Manzi, Chief of Staff of the Competition Ministry of Costa Rica. By working closely with the International Tourism Board, we discussed growth prospects in medical tourism and the need for health / medical spa accreditation standards.

International standards are required to effectively blend the cross while increasing its medical tourism and healing centers. The spa has become the softer side of medical tourism, and a large part of its growth. The need, especially in Costa Rica, is to create strong local incentive, partnerships and association. Like the Costa Rican Spa and Wellness Association, it is expected to launch this year. After all, the goal here is to compete, ensuring the confidence of potential customers.

With most countries using their own methodology to ensure standards, where is standardization, and to what extent does accreditation go globally?

According to the Medical Tourism Association, their "quality of care" program works towards this and the global standards for medical tourism. "This project should assist in the growth of medical tourism and help patients feel more comfortable and confident when traveling abroad for surgery … Our mission is to provide" transparency "regarding the quality of care data in the world of medical tourism / global health care." Worldwide, the major hospitals that provide these surgeries are certified by JCI, Joint Commission International, including CIMA and Clinica Biblica in the capital of Costa Rica San Jose. JCI ensures that hospitals reach a standard level or are suspended from operation. When it comes to resort accreditation, we are committed to providing our expertise in spa quality and leading the national call to action in Costa Rica. Spa standards, especially medically relevant, require a high liability or shutdown.

Feedback from professionals

We spoke with the founder of the Day Spa Association, Hannelore Leavy, on this topic and her interest in working with different countries following the guidelines of the DSA, Day Spa Association or IMSA, International Medical Spa Association. According to Hannelore, "These guidelines are the basis of our certification programs, which can be adjusted according to the local laws of each country's governing regulators." The DSA mission statement includes "… the continuous upgrading of professionalism and high quality services …" and the IMSA mission statement "… the continuous upgrading of a practical but strict code of ethics based on the highest standards of care and peer-reviewed organization."

Continuous rise is a good way to boost growth in the industry, and a key advantage we will work on in this case.

Statistics of the Costa Rican Tourism Authority refer to about 250 plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery procedures performed every month in Costa Rica hospitals. Ninety percent of these are made on foreigners. This is not a surprise when you see the cost difference.

Abdominoplasty: $ 10,000 USD 4,500

Face Lift: $ 12,000, $ 4,700

With many major hospitals and over 500 spa facilities in Costa Rica, you'll have a choice from where to go. We hope it will be certified by JCI and an international association specializing in spa standards. In this case, you can pursue accreditation from the Costa Rica Spa and Wellness Association or DSA / IMSA as global partners.

It does not matter whether clients are driven by mandatory medical problems or compulsory desires, health tourism is enjoying prosperity. This means more need for strict standards and intense competition. Competition pays strategy. Strategy and creativity. Creativity, the ability to cut corners. Especially when underdeveloped countries rely heavily on numbers of tourism and medical tourism to achieve economic growth.

There are many associations dedicated to being the voice of this industry, including the IMSA, the Medical Tourism Association, and the International Chamber of Commerce for Health Tourism that are all making great strides in standards and standardization.

Join the noise

This is an industry with many onion layers, with more being discovered. Let's not let “medical imperialism” with intolerance toward foreign physicians, or the “race” of prestigious American medical facilities to create foreign satellites, or even fear of competition, the real issues of patient care and the international effort to ensure medical / medical tourism go beyond spa / resort standards healthy.

I may be exemplary, and I hope a few of us will remain, but I think we can continue to compel foreign officials in their desire to adopt and create a balance for all concerned. I will continue to foster growth of standards and creativity without cutting corners.

You can join the cause and join the noise by contacting Costa Rican officials about the Medical Spa / Spa Standards, ensuring our national call to action, and launching a local spa association. Send comments to government officials to reinforce your concerns and the need for an evaluation system with an association and criteria to ask for;

o President of Information and Communications Technology (Costa Rica Tourism Board) – Carlos Ricardo Benevides

Central office: 011 506 2299 5800

o Minister of Tourism Planning – Antonio Farah

Central office: 011 506 2299 5293

Competition Minister – Massimo Manzi

Central office: 011 506 2299 5293

Meanwhile, you can enjoy your medical trips, and don't forget to enjoy some cultural aspects of the beautiful countries hosting foreign medical tourists. Spread the word. Making a difference.


Avoiding the "self-reporting" nightmare of a disability claim

1,200,100 Social Security benefit claims were filed in 1999 (48 percent or 579,000 were rejected). In 2009, ten years later, 2816,200 requests for social security disabilities were filed (65 percent or 1830,530 applications were rejected). The number of requests for disabilities has more than doubled, while the number of rejections has more than tripled. In one year, she lost more than $ 23 trillion in annual benefits.

In 2011, trillions of dollars in worth of claims from insurance, social security and veterans affairs will continue to be unnecessarily dismissed.

Disabled Americans who have been diagnosed with serious medical and psychological illnesses have begun to tackle the gravity of the physical, emotional and financial challenges they will face. This is the worst time imaginable to file a disability claim.

Insufficient preparation and submission of an insufficient claim for long-term disability (LTD) greatly increases the likelihood that your request will be rejected, especially when it is a claim of chronic fatigue or another “self-reported” disability (fibromyalgia, carbel tunnel).

Review your LTD policy. Do they provide aggregate benefit benefits only, or do they provide partial or residual benefits (long-term partial disability) so that you do not have to completely disrupt the collection of benefits? Hope it will be the last. What is the policy definition of partial disability? Are you indicating your inability to perform one or more daily physical duties from your profession and / or is there a reference to performing your profession duties in a reduced capacity?

For "self-reported" persons with disabilities, we would like to share some "advice" to improve your chances of collecting disability benefits.

Tip # 1: Our experience, over three decades of work and specialist in disability insurance business, has been that an incorrectly completed LTD claim form increases the chances of claim being rejected, even when full information is submitted to the insurance company after the initial claim has been submitted. Remember that you are applying for benefits to replace your lost salary. You will need to prepare your application for benefits with the same (or better) attention to detail as it does when applying for your job.

Tip # 2: You will need to have a focused conversation with your doctor about the specific ways in which you will need to collaborate while on the go with the limited claim process. You also notice: You must get fully positive cooperation from your doctor, as well as your agreement with you regarding your disability. Full documentation of your “self-reported” disability, supported by irrefutable evidence from the attending physician (treating physicians) (who are recognized experts and authorities in the treatment of your specific condition, is absolutely essential in the initial submission of your claim).

Tip # 3: Is your doctor treating a specialist (expert) in treating your specific condition? Very few are. If it is not him or her, be careful. Due to the specialized nature of the diagnosis, your insurance company expects your doctor to have experience treating your specific condition. The disability insurance company is looking for expertise in treating any disease, especially "self-reporting" cases. This, however, does not mean that you have to change doctors. Your primary care physician (PCP) may have already referred you to a specialist for diagnosis and primary treatment. In such a case, the PCP will likely follow your treatment path, with an accidental update with your specialist.

Tip # 4: What is your doctor's experience helping other patients with "self-reported" disabilities get disability benefits? Was it a big hit or a big difficulty? Your doctor must be your ally in the claims process, especially in order to start receiving benefits.

Tip # 5: What kind of test was used to confirm the diagnosis? When "self-reported" disabilities first began to be recognized as unique and difficult to diagnose diseases, much controversy surrounded various diagnostic methods. Senior researchers and physicians, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Center for Infectious Diseases have developed various guidelines to assess your condition. (For more, we encourage you to do a web search and read "SSR 99-2P: Your guide to successful CFS claims.")


When reviewing many long-term disability claims that insurance companies have rejected, there is one overriding topic: the personal physician and / or other subsequent medical documents that have not supported or confirmed the extent of the disability. Prosecutors were expecting a specific result (to pay their claim) while the medical information accompanying their claim form did not establish the extent of the deficiency. In essence, the demands and the doctor only did not communicate properly. Bottom line … do it right the first time.

Copyright 2016

Alan Chikway, RHU


Pets from the Internet for small exporters

Exporters seeking information or business contacts in their overseas markets may find it difficult and time-consuming.

The Internet is an invaluable tool for finding companies that are likely to be interested in alliances, distributing or purchasing products – and communicating with them to build and maintain the necessary relationships.

An observer of the growth of the Internet in his earlier days noted that "the Internet, like television and print media, is another resource developed in new emerging media to promote products and / or services. The similarities end there. The Internet also adds the ability to communicate quickly and at a lower cost, and It enables companies that need information to find them quickly and easily, and the Internet can be used in a number of ways to promote your business internationally. "

Even with the help of the Internet, export still follows the same basic rules. Before the Internet was a very important factor in export marketing, many areas were identified as being important to export success.

One of these factors is companies' ignorance of foreign laws and customs, either of which can negatively affect the potential success in any foreign market.

Among the other factors identified in many studies conducted on successful export marketers is the development and enhancement of competitive advantage within the target markets.

Maintaining an effective distribution network and marketing techniques was a top priority after the company operated in export markets.

Government assistance in identifying and developing relationships with companies in foreign markets was generally considered necessary, but the information gold mine now available online means that we are all less dependent than we were.

In the first part of my career, actual travel to potential markets was crucial to developing export markets, but at great cost. The first innovation to help us was cheaper flights, but with the advent of the Internet, this travel is no longer a very critical problem now, as many small companies have been allowed to enter export markets more than was required when international travel is widespread (and expensive).

The purpose of this foreign travel that was previously required was often to search for government and private sector sources that could provide us with information on regulations and market research experiences and an introduction to companies likely to be interested in working as a distributor or retailer of the company's goods or services. Resources such as local chambers of commerce, trade associations, and government data on specific sectors of industry and commodities have been available for years, but generally only through individual subscriptions or libraries.

Several years ago, there was great hope for the potential of direct trade via the Internet. With only relatively few exceptions, success in direct online sales has been elusive for most of those not involved in business transactions. However, the Internet provides a wealth of information that applies to more standardized methods of achieving the "international" situation and should be considered an integral part of establishing and maintaining relationships with foreign distributors and retailers.

I suggest that what is important in export success is the ability to create websites to market your products, give credibility to your business and make it easier for clients and potential customers to locate you and communicate with you. Your website can be as big or simple as you like; it will be largely determined by your budget but remember that with a little time and thought you can create your budget at little or no cost. If you want a good site, this will be expensive and you will need to see the work of several consultants before settling one of them to create your site.

The advent of new technological advances, such as video sharing sites like YouTube, gives you access to a new generation of web user to help grow your brand but you'll need to get the basics of online marketing strategy right before venturing into this arena.

What is available to you immediately, at no cost, is the ability to create blog sites. The blog was originally a web-based diary (weblog). I have tried my marketing and PR blogs from time to time with articles for small companies at and attracted a large number of visitors. Creating nothing requires just your time, but it does provide you with a free instant display tool and free public relations. As long as you include promoting your blog's website title in your marketing strategy, this will be an invaluable tool for you.

I hope these brief ideas are useful but I welcome your comments and suggestions on any future articles on the European perspective of export marketing.

John Hicks, Managing Director of Headline Promotions, Press and Public Relations is based in Basingstoke in southern England. With many years' experience in marketing, trade promotion and public relations (including time spent working with UK manufacturing advisory service for the South East region and engineering employers in the South), John specializes in the manufacturing and entertainment industry. He is also a contributor to a number of British and American magazines.

John is always pleased to provide free informal advice via email; contact him via email at – please mention this newsletter. You can read the Marketing and PR blog from time to time with articles for small businesses at


Bauhaus adventure

"The house object evolves through the events that preceded it at home. It is the functions of living, sleeping, bathing, cooking and eating that inevitably give the full design of the house its shape … Design is not there for its own benefit, it arises on its own from the nature of the building, from the job it must fulfill … architecture has not exhausted its raison d'être, unless we consider our emotional needs for harmonious space, for nefarious sounds and to allow space for movement, it first brings life back into space, as a goal to reach a higher order. " Walter Gropius, in 1930

In German, Bauhaus literally means "building houses." But, besides words, the concept points to a completely new concept of art and life. As part of their basic training, artists were encouraged to emerge from their narrow experience – not only in painting, design and sculpture – and embrace the field of creative experiences. The aim was to provide a broader base to improve their knowledge.

The idea for this article started relatively automatically. While in Germany in 2009, I took many opportunities to understand more about this movement, and this is what I know but at a very superficial level. I was aware of many works and projects, but I was not fully aware of the philosophical background of the entire movement. Since then, I was fascinated not only by the diversity of artworks belonging to the Bauhaus movement and the current influences, but also by the overall concept that largely corresponds to the needs of the world in which we live today.


Kunstgewerbschule at Weimar was founded by Henry van de Velde in 1908. In 1919, Walter Gropius succeeded him at the head of this institution, which established relationships with the other Weimar school, theHochschule fuer Bildende Kunst. Three years before the recommendation and the local authorities agreed, the merger of Kunstgewebeschule and Hochschule fr Bildende Kunst was merged into one interdisciplinary school of crafts and design.

While fighting at the forefront of World War I, Gropius wrote "Proposals to create an educational institution to provide technical advisory services to industry, commerce and crafts." The movement's statement was issued in 1919 – as a couple of paragraphs expressing the founder's main idea in a very brief form – and illustrated by a wooden inscription – Cathedral of the Future, an industrial utopia that uses the religious symbol as an excuse for inclusivity and a holistic perspective – Lionel Wenger.

Once confirmed as the leader of Bauhaus, he followed his principles and succeeded in bringing Weimar several prominent technical names for the day: Lyonel Feininger, Gerhard Marcks, Johan Itten, Georg Muche, Paul Klee, Oskar Schlemmer and Wassily Kandinsky. Representatives of De Stijl joined the expressionism. In 1923, Theo van Duisburg, one of the most represented characters in the movement, gave some lectures to Bauhaus students. Another influence is from the Russian constructivist side.

Even Gropius was an architect in terms of composition, the Department of Architecture was absent in the early years of the life of the Bauhau School. Ironically, in many cases, movement is more recognized by influencing the field of city planning and building ethics than by the field of design and visual arts in general.

The context in which Bauhaus was born is very exciting – a turbulent period, both in international politics and at home – the end of World War I, the Russian Revolution in October 1917, and the boiled socialist anarchist movements in Germany, including the leadership of Spartacus Bond by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxembourg – in The field of art, with Dada, Baadism, Reiter, Fofsim and De Staile among the new classes most important in artistic expression. Despite the clear political orientations – on the left – of some members of the school board, he identified Gropius and attempted to preserve his supposedly neutral political life. At the same time, he was a strong believer in the need for a new society, in his aesthetic vision conceived as a whole environment where all aspects of art were related and interconnected in a better world for humans. A vision that has moved for decades and re-emerged in the 21st century.

Return to the origins

His vision about the mission of the arts was explained in the statement published in 1919, in his first year of administration. The starting point of his approach to education reform was, as a first step in creating a unified framework covering the entire spectrum of artistic activities. This system was organized on the basis of the relationship of the trained master, reflecting the Renaissance and the concepts of education, and a shift around the idea of ​​spirituality. But the main idea of ​​education was more than just knowing the skills. Paul Eten, for example, used to start his classes with breathing and gymnastic exercises, while teaching theories of shape, color, or art history, and specifying correspondence between musical and spatial composition, in a spirit of harmony and balance.

Eten's spiritual interests went beyond his educational purposes, and he became more involved with Moshe in the Mazdaeb community, whose education and practices – such as vegetarianism, for example – were being introduced to Bauhaus. In December 1922, after various struggles with Gropius, Bauhaus left.

Paul Eten followed Joseph Albers and Laszlo Mohole Nagy who focused more on practical aspects, as factory visits.

From the start, the activities of the Gropius School – governmental institutions – have not been considered sympathy by local politicians and unions. Suspicion and controversy have increased in people like Eten and his followers. Local union representatives were concerned about a possible shortage of jobs held by Bauhaus students and accused the school of being a hotbed of communism and sabotage.

In a move to ease some of the critics and to illustrate the importance of the movement, in 1923 an exhibition was organized showing the school's work. The reactions the exhibition received in the United States and abroad were impressive, while the positive feedbacks in Germany were almost non-existent.

Women in art

"We wanted to create contemporary relevant living organisms appropriate for a new lifestyle. There is tremendous potential for experience in front of us. It was necessary to define our imaginary world, to shape our experiences through materials, rhythm, proportion, color and shape." Gunta will be removed

An important part of Bauhaus' groundbreaking work is represented by the Women's Education Place. At the time, most of the women were receiving home schooling with female teachers. Bauhaus on the art market at that time displayed various names of women. Initially, the numbers of women applying for education replaced men, but in a relatively short time, their names were lost. We rarely remember these days about Ilse Fehling (sculpture), Alma Siedhoff-Busher (toys), Marguerite Friedlaender-Wildenhain (earthenware) or Benita Oette (weave).

In the middle of a political storm

The struggle with local authorities to gain respect and reconnaissance has been overshadowed by the always unpredictable speed in the good sense of developments taking place on the political scene in Germany. Weimar, the seat of the school, was the city that gave another indication of the approaching dark times, by electing the German National Socialist Workers' Party.

As a direct result, funding was limited, and in 1926 Gropius moved the school to Dessau, a city with a more relaxed political environment. However, at the same time, Gropius was looking for more autonomy for his institution. One year before the move, in November 1925, with financial support from Adolf Sommerfeld, Gropius created a limited company to promote the school's designs and retail marketing – BauhausGmbH. A duly catalog produced, designed by Herbert Bayer, which shows Bauhaus products. The ideal period was about to end.

Dessau period

When Gropius moved his school in Dessau – and designed the new headquarters – the city was a very quiet industrial city, where the forests are located. I keep those treats today. The friendly landscape is punctured by the engineering houses of the former Bauhaus dwellings.

The new location reflects a shift in the general concept of the world of Gropius himself. He ceased to be a strong believer in the utopian socialist anti-capitalist ideas common in the first part of his career where he was more interested in a functionalist capitalist approach. At the business level produced by Bauhaus in this period, this is reflected in the increase in the level of industrial production.

Bauhaus without Gropius

In the following years, Gropius became more interested in theoretical approaches and wanted to delegate as many administrative tasks as possible. After his failure in 1928, in handing over the director of Bauhaus to Ludwig Messe van der Rohey, he appointed the Swiss architect, Hans Meyer, as a Communist, and Professor of the newly redesigned Hochschule fuer Gestaltung Center at the Design Institute, which remained until July 1930. Meyer presented a more scientific approach To Bauhaus he gave lectures on economics, psychology, sociology, biology, and Marxism in the school curriculum. The construction period ended with him, as the focus was on "pure" arts. Parallel to the expansion of Nazism, the end of the 1920s and early 1930s saw an increase in communist activities within the school, including through direct participation in support of various strikes. It creates various struggles with old and new names from Bauhaus, worried about the increasingly negative press, which ultimately leads to the expulsion of Meyer.

It was followed by Mais van der Rohe, whose main task was not to politicize the school. His first step was to close the school, force 170 students to reapply, expel others and create a new curriculum. The new interest was in architecture, which focused mostly on the attention of the educational program. Political interests have been completely eliminated.

The complete recovery of the school was halted by the victory of the National Socialists in Dessau, October 1931, which led to the fulfillment of their old dream – the closure of Bauhaus.

The end of the chapter

Bauhaus was moved by Mies as a private school in Berlin, but he followed the same path after more political victory for the National Socialists. The building was raided by the Gestapo, and on July 19, 1933 a decision was taken to dissolve the school. Several professors, including Mays, Marcel Brewer, Walter Gropius and Joseph Albers, immigrated to the United States to escape persecution, and in 1937, Mholy Nagybeckim made a short-lived director of New Bauhaus in Chicago. A year later, the Bauhaus design was retroactively held at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and the school's reputation grew as the most important institution of the twentieth century.

The inheritance

The functional approach to Bauhaus's pioneering design had a fundamental impact on the practice of industrial post-design and provided the philosophical basis from which the modern movement evolved. The Bauhaus also had a profound and widespread influence on the way in which design was later taught, and this was particularly perceptible in the Fur Hochschule Gestaltung, Ulm.

The white city

Israel is one of the most preserved places where the Bauhaus heritage has been moved, as it is located outside Tel Aviv, the only city in the world built in the Bauhaus style, monuments in Haifa, Jerusalem or in the kibbutzim.

The influences are more than belonging to more than one record of international style and are adapted to the functional needs of the city in terms of social and climate treatments. He prefers an asymmetry and irregularity, with soft interfaces and an open floor plan. The windows are smaller. The white city complex is all part of the UNESCO heritage.

The first building was built in the 1930s by former students in Bauhaus: Ariel Sharon, Dov Carmi, Genia Overbush, Richard Kaufman, Eric Mendelssohn – who, among others, designed the residence of the first president of the country, Chaim Weizmann.

Books and articles

Charlotte and Peter Viel, Design Handbook. Concepts. Materials. Styles, Hong Kong Kln London Los Angeles Madrid Paris Tokyo: Taschen, 2006


Why is crude but gasoline still so?

Nothing has become more commercially important to us that the price of crude oil. Rising crude oil prices always cause our daily budgets to be disruptive. The first to be reached is the cost of running our cars (which means skipping the long, favorite drives of much of the weekend), then resting everything. Fruits and vegetables, daily grocery stores and air travel, almost everything except income. Interesting because of this steep rise in prices, our real income is actually decreasing because we are able to buy commodities just as much as the price. This is the effect of crude oil prices on our daily lives. To change this time around Crude Oil prices are looking to stabilize below the $ 100 level but there are reversal phenomena, although Crude Oil (which is the primary fuel for vehicle operation and a direct derivative of Crude Oil prices) is still moving up. Let's examine this factor in more detail.

You do not have to be a math genius to establish a positive relationship between global crude oil prices and gasoline prices. The movement of global crude prices is rising and so are the prices of gasoline. But this time something strange happens, when consumers are happy to see crude oil prices fall and expect to follow gasoline, this has not really happened. On the other hand, it appears that it continues to climb. Why is this happening?

No, God's desire is not to deprive you of a long weekend trip or make your life more miserable, and the answer to this lies in the current economic conditions surrounding the supply of crude oil and gasoline. Refineries do not produce enough gasoline due to two main reasons:

Raw stocks are not enoughNot so long ago, the price of Crude Oil was in a rage of $ 130 a barrel and was expected to cool a lot. Many refineries and other commercial and non-commercial establishments have postponed imports, believing that crude oil prices will fall and may be in decline if you decide to buy at higher levels. This resulted in a shortage of crude in refineries (which further refined it into gasoline).

Many refineries went in shutdown: Many of the refineries were closed even if they had sufficient stocks due to maintenance or flooding on the west coast, which further aggravated the supply conditions.

There is not enough gasoline to meet current demand and is the main reason for the high prices of gasoline despite the drop in global crude prices. We should get past the unique situation soon and see gasoline soon after the direction of the crude oil.